Daniel 11:1-3

  1. Darius II (Darius Nothus): Approximately reigned from 423 BC to 404 BC.
  2. Artaxerxes II (Artaxerxes Mnemon): Approximately reigned from 404 BC to 358 BC.
  3. Artaxerxes III (Artaxerxes Ochus): Approximately reigned from 358 BC to 338 BC.
  4. Arses (Artaxerxes IV): Approximately reigned from 338 BC to 336 BC.
  5. Darius III (Darius Codomannus): Approximately reigned from 336 BC to 330 BC.
  6. Alexander the Great: Conquered the Persian Empire, ending the Achaemenid dynasty. His reign began around 336 BC, and he died in 323 BC.

Daniel 11:4

After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his vast empire was divided among his generals, leading to the formation of several successor kingdoms. The four main parts into which Alexander's empire was divided are typically referred to as the Diadochi Kingdoms. They were:

  1. Seleucid Empire: This kingdom was established by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander's generals, who ruled over the eastern portion of the empire, including present-day Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and parts of Central Asia.
  2. Ptolemaic Kingdom: Founded by Ptolemy I Soter, another of Alexander's generals, this kingdom encompassed Egypt and became known for its famous dynasty of pharaohs, the Ptolemaic dynasty, which included Cleopatra VII.
  3. The Kingdom of Macedonia (Antigonid dynasty): Initially ruled by Alexander's general Antipater, Macedonia was eventually taken over by Antigonus I Monophthalmus and his descendants, forming the Antigonid dynasty. This kingdom controlled Greece and Macedonia.
  4. Kingdom of Pergamon (Attalid dynasty): This kingdom emerged later, under the Attalid dynasty, after the collapse of the Seleucid Empire. Pergamon was located in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey) and became known for its cultural achievements and its rivalry with the Seleucids.
  5. These kingdoms were often in conflict with each other as they vied for dominance and control over the territories that once belonged to Alexander's empire.

Daniel 11:5-35

Kings from the North

(Seleucid Empire)

  1. Daniel 11:5-6 - Seleucus I Nicator
  2. Daniel 11:7-9 - Seleucus II Callinicus
  3. Daniel 11:10-12 - Seleucus III Ceraunus
  4. Daniel 11:13-19 - Antiochus III the Great
  5. Daniel 11:20-28 - Seleucus IV Philopator, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Antiochus V Eupator
  6. Daniel 11:29-35 - Antiochus VI Dionysus, Demetrius I Soter, Alexander Balas, Demetrius II Nicator, Antiochus VII Sidetes

Kings from the South

(Ptolemaic Kingdom)

  1. Daniel 11:5-6 - Ptolemy I Soter
  2. Daniel 11:7-9 - Ptolemy II Philadelphus
  3. Daniel 11:10-12 - Ptolemy III Euergetes
  4. Daniel 11:13-19 - Ptolemy IV Philopator
  5. Daniel 11:20-28 - Ptolemy V Epiphanes, Ptolemy VI Philometor, Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
  6. Daniel 11:29-35 - Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, Cleopatra I Syra, Cleopatra II, Ptolemy IX Soter II, Ptolemy X Alexander I, Cleopatra III, Ptolemy XI Alexander II, Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos

DANIEL 11:36-45 (This section is not complete yet)

I hope to show who the king is in verse 45 so we can understand the timing of Daniel 12

Daniel 11:33-35 (I recommend the Easy Reading Version of these verses) builds a transitions from Seleucid/Ptolemaic to the Roman Kingdom. Jumping back to Daniel 2:44-45

"During the time of the kings of the fourth kingdom, the God of heaven will set up another kingdom that will continue forever. (Setup or starts with the birth of Christ under the first Roman King/Emperor Augustus). It will never be destroyed. And it will be the kind of kingdom that cannot be passed on to another group of people. This kingdom will crush all the other kingdoms. It will bring them to an end, but that kingdom itself will continue forever. "King Nebuchadnezzar, you saw a rock cut from a mountain, but no one cut that rock. The rock broke the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold to pieces. In this way God showed you what will happen in the future. The dream is true, and you can trust that this is what it means." (Dan 2:44-45, ERV)

God breaks all four kingdoms down (Babylon,Media-Persia,Greek,Roman Empires) including the last kingdom Rome and sets up His Kingdom that will go on for eternity on earth. With the full blessing and revelation of His Kingdom when you're earthly body is shed and raised a spiritual body to be in the Heavenly City/Kingdom, which Abraham and the forefathers looked forward to. (Hebrews 11:16 / 12:22)

See the 11 Kings page to see when this Kingdom started and ended for more details. Just for quick reference Augustus was the first Roman Emperor and was ruling when Jesus was born. This was the start of beginning to setup His kingdom on earth referenced in the above verse of Daniel 2. I know this is repeated however it really is the crux of understanding when the cornerstone was setup.

The setting up of these kings is not in the future. Christ established His church at His first coming. If you currently believe that book of Daniel is about the future, then one must conclude that God has not setup His Kingdom yet and Jesus is not King yet, if one is to keep consistent with their beliefs. Of course we should strive for truth no matter what our beliefs.

Daniel 11:36

The northern king will do whatever he wants. He will brag about himself. He will praise himself and think that he is even better than a god. He will say things that no one has ever heard. He will say those things against the God of gods. He will be successful until all the evil things have happened. Then what God has planned to happen will happen. (Dan 11:36, ERV)

Hadrian held a high opinion of himself and fostered the Second Jewish Roman War: Bar Kokbha revolt which lasted around 3 1/2 years. Reflect On Daniel 7:25

Daniel 11:37

“Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.” (Dan 11:37, KJV)

Hadrian, the Roman Emperor from 117 to 138 AD, indeed had his own religious practices and beliefs, distinct from traditional Greek polytheism. While the Romans adopted many aspects of Greek culture, including religion, they also had their own pantheon of gods and religious rituals. Also, of note Hadrian was believed to have sexual relations with men, in particular Antinous, a young Greek man who accompanied him on his travels. He also dedicated several items including statues and other artifacts to Antinous.

Daniel 11:38

The northern king will not worship any god, but he will worship power. Power and strength will be his god. His ancestors didn't love power as he does. He will honor the god of power with gold and silver, expensive jewels, and gifts. (Dan 11:38, ERV)

Hadrian was known to have a particular affinity for the god Hercules. Hercules, known as Heracles in Greek mythology, was a symbol of strength, courage, and power. He was revered by the Romans as well, often depicted in art and sculpture throughout the empire. Hadrian's admiration for Hercules is evident in his personal interests and architectural projects. He often identified himself with Hercules and even portrayed himself in the guise of the mythological hero in some sculptures. Additionally, Hadrian commissioned the construction of temples and monuments dedicated to Hercules in various locations across the Roman Empire, including the famous Temple of Hercules Victor in Rome. Hercules represented many qualities that Hadrian admired, such as physical prowess, heroism, and the ability to overcome challenges. By associating himself with Hercules, Hadrian may have sought to convey an image of strength and authority, both as a ruler and as a leader of the Roman people.

Daniel 11:39

That northern king will attack strong fortresses with the help of this foreign god. He will give much honor to the foreign rulers who join him. He will put many people under their rule. He will make the rulers pay him for the land they rule over. (Dan 11:39, ERV)

Hadrian, the Roman Emperor, was known for his military campaigns, expanding and fortifying the empire's borders. He launched numerous attacks to secure territories and maintain Roman control. Additionally, he implemented land rights policies, granting rulers the authority to govern their territories while remaining under Roman sovereignty. This strategy aimed to balance centralized power with local autonomy, fostering stability within the empire. Hadrian's military prowess and administrative reforms solidified his legacy as a skilled leader who prioritized both defense and governance, contributing to the longevity and strength of the Roman Empire.

Daniel 11:40

At the time of the end, the southern king will fight a battle against the northern king. The northern king will attack him with chariots and soldiers on horses and many large ships. The northern king will rush through the land like a flood. (Dan 11:40, ERV)

During the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 AD), the Roman forces sent to suppress the rebellion included a combination of infantry, cavalry, siege engines, and possibly naval units. The specific military units involved were under the command of several Roman generals, including:

  1. Publius Marcellus: He was one of the Roman generals leading the initial suppression efforts against the Jewish rebels.
  2. Quintus Tineius Rufus: He was another Roman general who played a significant role in the Roman campaign against the rebels.
  3. Julius Severus: He was a veteran general who was sent from Britain to assist in quelling the revolt and played a crucial role in the eventual Roman victory.
  4. These Roman forces likely consisted of legions stationed in the region, supplemented by auxiliary units and possibly naval forces to support operations along the coast. The Romans also employed siege tactics and equipment to besiege fortified Jewish strongholds, including Jerusalem.

    The exact composition and tactics of the Roman military forces during the Bar Kokhba revolt are not extensively documented, but they would have been similar to standard Roman military operations of the time, utilizing a combination of infantry, cavalry, siege engines, and naval support as needed.

    Daniel 11:41-42

    The northern king will attack the Beautiful Land. He will defeat many countries. But Edom, Moab, and the leaders of Ammon will be saved from him. The northern king will show his power in many countries. Egypt will also learn how powerful he is. (Dan 11:41-42, ERV)

    Hadrian's military campaigns extended to Egypt, where he faced unrest and rebellion. However, his primary focus was suppressing the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judea, leaving regions like Edom and Moab relatively untouched. Hadrian's strategic priorities likely centered on stabilizing Judea before addressing peripheral areas. The military forces he deployed consisted of infantry, cavalry, and possibly naval units, led by generals such as Publius Marcellus and Quintus Tineius Rufus. While neighboring territories like Egypt faced Roman intervention, they weren't the primary targets. Hadrian's campaigns aimed at reasserting Roman control over rebellious regions, securing stability in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Daniel 11:43

    He will get treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt. The Libyans and Ethiopians will obey him. (Dan 11:43, ERV)

    Under Hadrian's rule as Roman Emperor, territories including modern-day Libya and Ethiopia were part of the Roman Empire, subject to Roman governance and administration. Roman officials oversaw local affairs, integrating these regions into the empire's political and economic structure, extending Roman influence across North Africa and into East Africa.

    Daniel 11:44

    But that northern king will hear news from the east and the north that will make him afraid and angry. He will go to completely destroy many nations. (Dan 11:44, ERV)

    Hadrian's concerns regarding threats from the north and east likely stemmed from various geopolitical and strategic factors during his reign as Roman Emperor:

    1. Barbarian Invasions: In the north, regions such as Germania (modern-day Germany) were often sources of instability and incursions into Roman territory by Germanic tribes. These tribes posed a constant threat to Roman borders, and Hadrian implemented defensive measures such as building the famous Hadrian's Wall in Britain to fortify Roman territories against incursions from the north.
    2. Parthian Empire In the east, the Parthian Empire (and later the Sassanian Empire) represented a significant military and political rival to Rome. Conflict between Rome and Parthia over control of territories in the eastern Mediterranean, including parts of modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, was frequent. Hadrian's predecessor, Trajan, had extended Roman territory into Mesopotamia, but Hadrian later withdrew from some of these territories, possibly due to concerns about overextension and the threat posed by Parthia.
    3. Military Strategy: Hadrian's decision to consolidate Roman borders and focus on defensive military strategies, such as the construction of fortifications like Hadrian's Wall, suggests a pragmatic approach to managing threats from the north and east. By fortifying borders and reducing the vulnerability of Roman territories to external attacks, Hadrian sought to maintain stability and security within the empire.

    Overall, Hadrian's concerns about threats from the north and east were rooted in the complex geopolitical dynamics of the time, including the ongoing struggle with external powers and the need to protect Roman territories from incursions and invasions.

    Daniel 11:45

    He will set up his king's tents between the sea and the beautiful holy mountain. But finally, that bad king will die. There will be no one to help him when his end comes. (Dan 11:45, ERV)

    Hadrian did visit Judea during his reign as Roman Emperor. His visit to Judea was significant in the context of his reign, particularly because it coincided with the suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt, which erupted in 132 AD. Hadrian's visit to Judea during this period was likely aimed at overseeing military operations and assessing the situation on the ground. Additionally, he may have been involved in making decisions regarding the administration and governance of the region in the aftermath of the revolt. While the details of his visit are not extensively documented, it is recorded that he spent some time in Judea during this period. The lack of detailed reports of how Hadrian died compared to other Emperor's is an indication no one was around to help it at his death.

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